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Selected Publications

Guarino, K. F., Wakefield, E. M., Morrison, R. G., & Richland, L. E. (2021). Exploring how visual attention, inhibitory control, and co-speech gesture instruction contribute to children’s analogical reasoning ability. Cognitive Development

Carazza, C., Wakefield, E. M., Hemani-Lopez, N., Plath, K., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2021). Children integrate speech and gesture across a wider temporal window than speech and action when learning a math concept. Cognition.

Wakefield, E. M., Novack., M. N., Congdon, E. L., & Howard, L. (2021). Individual differences in gesture interpretation predict children’s propensity to pick a gesturer as a good informant. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 205, doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2020.105069

Guarino, K., & Wakefield, E. M. (2020). Teaching analogical reasoning with co-speech gesture shows children where to look, but only boosts learning for some. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575628


Wakefield, E. M., Congdon, E., L., Novack, M. A., Goldin-Meadow, S., James, K. H. (2019). Learning math by hand: The neural effects of gesture-based instruction in 8-year-old children. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics


Wakefield, E. M., Foley, A. E., Ping, R., Villarreal, J., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. (2019). Breaking down gesture and action in mental rotation: Understanding the components of movement that promote learning. Developmental Psychology


Wakefield, E. M., Novack, M. A., Congdon, E. L., Franconeri, S., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2018). Gesture helps learners learn, but not merely by guiding their visual attention. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12664


Wakefield, E. M., Hall, C., James, K.H., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2018). Gesture for generalization: Gesture facilitates flexible learning of words for actions on objects. Developmental Science.

Wakefield, E. M., Novack, M. A., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2017). Unpacking the ontogeny of gesture understanding: How movement becomes meaningful across development. Child Development.

Tan, S. L., Spackman, M., & Wakefield, E. M., (2017). Effects of diegetic and nondiegetic music on viewers’ interpretations of film. Music Perception.

Novack, M., Wakefield, E. M., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2016). What makes a movement a gesture? Cognition

Wakefield, E. M. & James, K. H. (2015). Effects of learning with gesture on children’s understanding of a new language concept. Developmental Psychology, 51, 1105-1114.

Wakefield, E. M., James, T. W., & James, K. H. (2013). Neural correlates of gesture processing across human development. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 30, 58-76.

Tan, S. L., Wakefield, E. M., & Jeffries, W. P. (2009). Musically untrained college students’ interpretations of musical notation: Sound, silence, loudness, duration, and temporal order. Psychology of Music, 37, 5-24.

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